Recruitment and Selection

“According to some, recruitment is the most critical human resource function for organisational survival or success. Recruitment is often neglected in Human Resources Management (HRM) literature with most accounts combining discussions of recruitment with selection. However, the more effective organisations are at identifying and attracting a high quality pool of applicants, the less important the selection stage of hiring becomes”

(Redman & Wilkinson, 2009: 65)

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Recruitment is the process of seeking applicant for positions within a business - on either a general basis or targeted to address particular vacancies. Potential applicants may be interested, but there is no mutual obligation between the possible employee and the employer concerned. Selection takes the next step, where the employer makes a choice between two or more interested applicants. However, it is often not appreciated how applicants also select their future employer, making conscious and unconscious decisions as to how much further they wish to pursue their original employment enquiry (Torrington, Hall, Taylor & Atkinson, 2014). The successful conclusion of both processes is the creation of a legally binding agreement between the employer and the employee, setting out the rights, obligations and expectations of both parties (Armstrong, 2006).

This chapter will introduce and outline the key recruitment and selection processes, highlighting major issues to consider. Whilst this is necessarily descriptive, views are offered as to the importance of understanding the dynamics and personal interactions involved in order to get the right people into the right roles at the right time. The issues surrounding diversity in recruitment and selection are also discussed. It is vital that any business is able to recruit and select the right staff from the outset - especially as the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) have suggested that it can cost around £30,000 to replace just one employee! (Oxford Economics, 2014).

LEARNING OUTCOMES

To be able to:

  1. Define recruitment and selection.
  2. Understand the key business processes are applied.
  3. Appreciate the importance of considering diversity in recruitment and selection
  4. Outline the different application, screening and selection methods that can be applied.

2.0 RECRUITMENT

Recruitment is about capturing and understanding all activities directed at locating potential employees. This involves making sure that we understand what needs to be done to attract applications from suitable candidates.

(Armstrong & Taylor, 2014).

Any successful recruitment process must provide businesses with a pool of suitable candidates for any vacant positions. The methodologies employed must be fair (and can be shown to be so) whilst also complying with the relevant legal and regulatory frameworks surrounding employment (these legal aspects are considered in the next chapter). Recruitment activities must contribute to corporate goals, reflect organisational brand, image and values whilst also being efficient and cost effective (Foot & Hook, 2008).

Any recruitment process must begin with a fundamental consideration of what is needed - it is essential to “step back” and analyse the requirement. Before any recruitment activity is initiated, the first question must be to understand what needs to be done - what is the nature of the job and what is it required to achieve or deliver? In order to do so, the role should be reduced to its basic components such as the nature of the activities, task responsibilities, the knowledge, skills and competences required to carry it out effectively and where it fits within the organisation (e.g. level/grade and reporting responsibilities) (Currie, 2006).

Often, this critical review can fundamentally challenge the assumptions behind any recruitment request, as aspects such as changing working methods due to the adoption of new technology can be considered. Also, the requirement can be placed in the wider organisational context, as it is essential to consider how more strategic corporate actions such as organisational changes are likely to shape current and future business needs. Ultimately, developing the most detailed understanding of what is driving the requirement for recruitment action will help to inform subsequent selection decisions (Taylor, 2010; Redman & Wilkinson, 2009).

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This analysis of the requirement when placed in the wider organisational context (which for larger entities could take the form of a corporate human resources plan) should provide the outline answers to the first basic recruitment questions - what ‘types’ of people are needed, when are they needed and how many are needed? From this foundation, it should be possible to define the requirement further through the creation of role profiles which outline the purpose of the position, the key competences needed and the outputs the role is required to deliver. These role profiles should include the terms and conditions of any appointment whilst also highlighting potential training, development and career opportunities that could arise.

A comprehensive role profile then support the development of the job description which goes into greater depth by outlining the core and functional competences needed for the position, the behaviours and standards expected of any incumbent and the qualifications, skills and experience that are thought to be essential for the role. Any discussion of behaviours and standards should be clearly linked to corporate values statements in order to help attract candidates that are likely to quickly accept and fit-in with the corporate culture of the business. Any job description should also discuss the key targets and outputs expected and what any candidate is likely to receive in return for meeting those expectations (i.e. pay and benefits) (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014).

Only by taking the time and care to consider these initial steps will any organisation be able to attract candidates with the right mix of skills and potential. Advertising vacancies without this preliminary effort can introduce a range of avoidable risks such as simply recruiting the ‘wrong’ person (i.e. an individual not possessing the skills, capabilities or attributes) or even attracting the ‘right’ person but at the wrong time or for the wrong position! (Torrington et al, 2011).

Discussion Point:

Reflect on the role of a street cleaner now and in the 1950s. When analysing the requirement, what key differences would you need to consider? In defining the requirement for a street cleaner, what aspects would you need to include in the role profile and job description for a modern cleaner that would not have been needed in the 1950s?

2.1 ANALYSING THE REQUIREMENT

If a decision has been made to recruit, then as outlined above it is necessary to understand what the job consists of, how it is to be different (if at all) from the job done by any previous incumbent, what role aspects help to identify the type of candidate required and the key things that the ideal candidate would wish to know before deciding to apply (Torrington et al, 2014). To do so requires a level of analysis which could be carried out by:

  • Observation - watching people do the job.
  • Reviewing reflective reports (such as logs and diaries) maintained by those carrying out the same role.
  • Interviews.
  • Critical incident techniques i.e. asking people to identify the most important tasks they carry out.
  • Structured work profiling such as task analysis - deconstructing the role into tasks and sub-tasks.

(Searle, 2004)

Whatever method is applied, the focus is on the role and the work performed, not the actual or desired attributes of the person required to perform it.

2.2 DEFININING THE REQUIREMENT

From the analysis conducted, it is possible to create a role profile. This should be outputs focussed and presented in a succinct manner. The aim should be to apply active verbs (e.g. identify, create, deliver) as this ensures that the profile is built around the duties involved rather than any potential candidate (Armstrong, 2006).

From a considered examination of such a role profile, it is them possible to develop the job description - recording the component parts and principle accountabilities of the role; and the person specification - identifying the key attributes and competences required. (Beardwell & Thompson, 2014). Capturing the requirement in this way provides the criteria against which subsequent applications can be reviewed and tested.

2.2.1 EXAMPLE OF ROLE PROFILE

Role Title: Office Administrator

Department: Council Planning Office

Purpose of Role: Responsible for all office administration, including database management, diary management and interaction with the public.

Key Results Areas:

  • Maintain database of all planning applications, meeting the requirements of council planning officers.
  • Develop meeting timetables and plans to ensure that planning department workflows are maintained.
  • Support the public in making planning enquiries.
  • Liaise with businesses to ensure that current and future development plans and aspirations are correctly recorded in the database.
  • Maintain office support within allocated budget (e.g. stationery, copying costs).
  • Supervise contractors in the office environment, ensuring all council policies and procedures are followed.
  • Act as the office health, fire and security officer, maintaining a safe working environment.

Need to Know:

  • Oracle database administration
  • Microsoft Office applications (Word, Excel, Project and PowerPoint)

Able to:

  • Work independently
  • Organise own work and the work timetables of others.
  • Understand budgets and manage resources effectively
  • Interact with the public in a supportive and engaging manner.

Behavioural Competences:

  • Constantly strives to improve performance.
  • Apply and analyse information from a range of sources, developing effective recommendations and/or solutions.
  • Work collaboratively with subject matter experts (planners) and non-technical personnel.

2.2.2 EXAMPLE OF JOB DESCRIPTION (ASSISTANT STORE MANAGER)

KEY RESPONSIBILITIES:

To meet the expectations of customers through the training, direction and motivation of staff and the purchasing and effective merchandising of products. To maximise store sales and impact through the adoption of best-practice commercial sales techniques and store layouts. Working to the Store Manager to maximise the effectiveness of the branch through a focus on corporate national and regional targets.

DUTIES:

Supporting the store manager in the creation of balanced team rotas, ensuring that the store is fully and effectively staffed at all times.

Inventory management skills using corporate systems to monitor stock consumption, manage the order pipeline and anticipate seasonal demands.

Anticipate changes to inventory requirements by researching emerging products; and monitoring/anticipating buyer interest

Attracts and retains customers by originating display ideas; following display suggestions or schedules.

Helps customers by providing information; answering questions; obtaining merchandise; completing payment transactions; preparing merchandise.

Prepares sales and customer relations reports; analysing and categorizing sales information; investigating customer complaints and service suggestions.

Supporting the store manager by maintaining a safe and clean store environment (e.g. evacuation routes, fire drills, determining and documenting locations of potentially dangerous materials and chemicals).

Substituting for the Store Manager in his/her absence.

Other duties as required/directed by the store manager (with regular requirements resulting in the review of this job description and associated monitoring through the performance and development agreement (PDA).

ASSISTANT STORE MANAGER SKILLS AND COMPETENCES:

Retail Management, Supply Chain Management, Health and Safety at Work experience/training, COSHH experience/training, Ability to collate, analyse and present information (such as store turnover, product demand data and personnel performance records). Strong inter-personal skills (written and oral - ability to understand/empathise with customers and staff).

QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED

GCSE A-C: Mathematics, English,

Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM) Level 3 qualification or broad equivalent. Relevant in-store experience can be considered.

Current Health and Safety, COSHH training relevant to retail.

Current First Aid at Work certificate

PROSPECTS AND POTENTIAL:

Depending on interest and personal aspirations, the successful incumbent can seek advancement to Store Manager and possibly Area Manager in due course. Alternative career avenues also exist for those interested in ‘head-office’ opportunities

2.2.3 EXAMPLE OF PERSON SPECIFICATION (ASSISTANT STORE MANAGER)

CRITERIA

ESSENTIAL

DESIREABLE

HOW MEASURED

Education

  • GSCE education standard or equivalent or experience.
  • Specific qualification related to retail management

Application

Knowledge

  • Computer Literate
  • General Problem Solving skills
  • Experience of bespoke retail management systems and applications

Application

At Interview

Experience

  • Previous retail experience
  • Knowledge of Company.
  • Multi-channel retailing in large store environments.

Application

At interview

Aptitude/

Manner

  • Good interpersonal skills
  • Good analytical problem solving skills
  • Good organisational skills
  • Flexible in approach to work
  • Ability to create teams
  • Ability to work within a team
  • Pro-active approach to work
  • Good observational skills
  • attention to detail
  • Application of these criteria/elements within a large store retail environment.
  • Experience of team management in a large store retail environment.
  • Evidence of practical problem solving abilities within a large store retail environment.

At interview

References

Physical

  • Clean (food handling and public presentation)
  • Friendly & open (information sharing, marketing, representing the manager and brand)
  • Physically robust (subject to provisions of Equality Act), given need for heavy lifting, movement of stock and customer assistance.

At interview

2.3 INITIATING RECRUITMENT

So, after all this preparatory work the prospective employer is well placed to begin advertising the opportunities they wish to fill. However, before any advertising or engagement with any potential candidates takes place, there are two further aspects to consider - the opportunities presented by internal recruitment action and the importance of employer branding

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2.3.1 INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT

Taking steps to consider internal candidates first shows how a company values its people, supporting internal succession planning whilst motivating staff through a focus on ‘careers’ rather than just ‘jobs’ (Bratton & Gold, 2007). Also, internal recruitment is usually a more cost-effective process (Oxford Economics, 2014).

Internal recruiting also increases the probability of securing people who understand the values, ethos and ethics, but this needs to be balanced against the new capabilities and skills that external recruitment can introduce (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). For example, external recruitment may be preferred if there is a need to challenge existing corporate performance standards or take forward a major business change programme (Anyim, Ekwoaba & Anthony, 2012).

2.3.2 RECRUITMENT AND EMPLOYER BRANDING

Companies work hard to create a brand that helps them to create a unique selling proposition. A successful brand has the power to influence, creating certainty, trust and emotion in a way that reduces risk in the minds of consumers that engage with it (Kapferer, 2012).

Potential employees of a company are also brand consumers and this presents an opportunity for businesses to use this as a means of attracting good quality applications from candidates likely to share the values and standards of the company. In essence, a company can become an employer of first choice (Taylor, 2014).

However, any employer branding approach must reflect the corporate cultures that exist in reality. If this is not the case (and the consumer perceptions of the company do not match the reality experienced by workers), then new employees are not retained and recruiting resources are wasted as people resign once they realise that their expectations will not be met (Torrington et al, 2014).

A successful employer brand can create a ‘push’ effect - potential candidates market themselves to the company rather than waiting for the business to initiate external recruitment action (Taylor, 2014). It has been shown that creating a strong employer brand approach can reduce direct recruitment costs and the time taken to fill vacant positions (Murphy, 2008).

2.3.3 ADVERTISING THE POSITION

After all this preparatory work, you can finally reach out to potential candidates and let them know you have a vacancy! However, a recruitment method must be chosen that will reflect any employer branding approaches and which will attract as many people as possible with the required skills, qualifications and experience. The aim must be to reach not only those actively seeking a new role, but also those who may be attracted by the new challenges being presented (Torrington et al, 2014).

Numerous methods can be used including company websites, recruitment agencies, trade journals, job centres, direct advertising (internet-based as well as more traditional media such as newspapers), social and professional networking and alumni groups. The key is to select a channel that ensures you reach potential candidates most likely to reflect the qualities and abilities outlined in the role profile, job description and person specification (Price, 2007).

Discussion Point:

What do you think are the most effective methods of advertising a job opportunity today? Are the more traditional approaches (such as newspapers and job centre adverts) still needed?

How and where would you advertise a vacancy for a software engineer? How would this approach be different to the one you would use to attract application for a caretaker’s position?

3.0 SELECTION

“Selection is one of the most important HR tasks, since it is vital to fill vacant positions with people who are not only suitably skilled for specific jobs, but are also flexible, willing and able to cope with change”

(Leatherbarrow & Fletcher, 2015: 189)

As already noted, appointing the ‘wrong’ person is costly and means that key capability gaps remain unfilled. It is therefore essential to develop methodologies that can select the ‘best person for the job’ from what could be a very large pool of applications (CIPD, 2007). The selection processes used must be unbiased and legally compliant (see next chapter) and this is why it is important to involve the human resources (HR) department as professional advisers wherever possible. Whilst the final selection decision should rest with the line manager, HR must also look at wider corporate requirements (such as succession planning and future capability needs) and address the demands associated with conducting a demonstrably fair and open appointment process (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014).

3.1 SCREENING APPLICATIONS

Depending on the approach outlined in the engagement/advertising method employed (see 2.3.3 above), the initial information about the candidate is now likely to be received in one of four ways - through a completed application form, the submission of a CV, access to a professional profile (such as LinkedIn) or the nomination/sponsorship of a recruitment agent (Leatherbarrow & Fletcher, 2015). If there are a limited number of applications or if a particular candidate appears to stand out from the rest (or simply if the requirement is that urgent!) then some entities choose to offer employment solely on the basis of this initial information. However, such approaches are more likely to increase the risk of appointing the ‘wrong’ person as the information has not been critically reviewed and tested. Consequently, it is more prudent to use this initial applicant contact to carry out an appropriate screening process.

The challenge is to maximise access to the potential talent pool available, whilst minimising the associated costs in terms of time and administration (Beardwell & Thompson, 2014). Ideally (in larger organisations) a balanced approach should be undertaken with line managers and HR personnel reviewing applications separately to create a suitable short-list for further action. Such a panel approach minimises the opportunity for individual/personal bias to unduly shape the screening process (Price, 2007)

Before any screening takes place, those involved should ensure that the essential selection criteria have been agreed, using the role profile, job description and person specification as the foundation (see 2.2.1 to 2.2.3 above). The aim should be to look at who can be included (rather than those to exclude), building a manageable talent pool to consider further - ‘compromise candidates’ (i.e. not particularly strong matches for the role but acceptable to everyone) should be avoided (Torrington et al, 2014).

It is noted that these screening approaches are unlikely to tell recruiters much about a candidate’s character, values and work ethic. Consequently, telephone interviews can be conducted, along with early referencing checks in order to obtain a more rounded view. Again, some businesses may feel that this provides enough evidence of competence and capability to make an offer of employment. However, it is argued that most will use this to confirm the validity of the screening processes undertaken (Muller-Camen, Croucher & Leigh, 2008).

Discussion Point:

Do you feel that these screening approaches are fair? Are any groups likely to be disadvantaged by such pre-selection processes? Can/should some people claim special dispensation or consideration at this stage in order to automatically progress to the selection process applied?

3.2 SELECTION METHODS

Whatever selection methodology is adapted, it is important to ensure that the candidates are aware of the process they will face so that they can prepare appropriately. Consequently, this needs to have been agreed before advertising any vacancy (Leatherbarrow & Fletcher, 2015). The selection process and techniques applied must also be able to identify individual differences in order to create some form of candidate ranking/preference in relation to the role. This ability to identify differences between candidates must also provide some form of indication or prediction as to how the candidate is likely to perform in their future workplace (Bratton & Gold, 2007).

3.2.1 SELECTION INTERVIEWING

The most common approach in the UK is the interview, with the structure built around either the contents of the CV or application form (biographical basis - cultural fit and past performance), competency examination (current skills for the role) or critical incident review (considering behavioural responses). Irrespective of the interview structure applied, the aim must be to answer three key questions - can the candidate do the job (competency), will they do the job (motivation) and how will they fit in (culture and behaviours) (Armstrong, 2006).

Ensuring that a structure is applied can help to mitigate against any bias or subjective judgements being introduced by those conducting interviews and wherever possible this should be built upon the rigorous training and selection of the interviewers themselves. Using the Person Specification (see 2.2.3 above) can help to shape the questions to be posed by identifying the skills and competences candidates will be required to display (Beardwell & Thompson, 2014).

Using a panel approach is also suggested (where the organisation is large enough) to help reach an impartial selection decision that balances both the interests of the business and the candidate(s). For example, most public-sector organisations are likely to use a panel of three people involving the line manager (considering specific role requirements and functional competences), the HR manager (focussed on legislative, regulatory and procedural compliance, as well as core competences) and an independent member (focussed on maintaining equity across all candidates, corporate values and the creation of a corporate talent pool) (Redman & Wilkinson, 2009).

Discussion Point:

You are required to conduct a number of interviews to select a new member of your team. How would you prepare for them if your company used CVs or application forms to screen potential candidates? Would your approach be very different if you were planning on conducting a competency-based interview built around a Person Specification? What questions would you ask and why?

3.2.2 PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS

Tests of personality and ability can be used to measure certain aspects of an individual’s behaviour to try and assess their suitability for a particular role (Bratton & Gold, 2007). These generally focus on mental abilities (e.g. verbal reasoning and numeracy), but where appropriate more physical tests can be applied (e.g. keyboard/typing speeds for administration staff) (Leatherbarrow and Fletcher, 2015).

Whilst such approaches can provide an indicative ranking of candidates based on their performance, such psychometric approaches are often supported by attempts to consider personality aspects, often by asking the candidate(s) to complete questionnaires aimed at capturing values, interests, attitudes and preferences (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). These do not provide easily ranked or right/wrong responses but instead provide assessors with an indication as to any major deviations from accepted societal or organisational ‘norms’. For example, the Costa Coffee Company developed a personality questionnaire built around its organisational values to help managers consider if a potential recruit was likely to be a good cultural fit for the business (Dawson, 2005).

3.2.3 ASSESSMENT CENTRES

An assessment centre seeks to use a single event to bring together a number of selection techniques to make judgements as to the suitability (and relative ranking) of candidates (Bratton & Gold, 2007). Participants are observed throughout by assessors trained in performance measurement and group exercises are often used to consider inter-personal skills and associated dynamics. Activities can included numeracy and literacy assessments, team communication exercises, work-specific role play scenarios and structured interviews.

The aim is to bring together the information and observations made (usually on a competency basis) to form the most objective judgement possible about issues that often generate subjective observation! Assessment centres can provide good information as to an individual’s ability to work under pressure, their preferred working styles, role aptitude, speed/flexibility of thought and the behaviours they are likely to display when working with others (Millmore, Lewis, Saunders, Thornhill & Morrow, 2007).

3.2.4 JOB SIMULATION AND WORK SAMPLING

Whilst generally considered to be an element of the psychometric and/or assessment centre approach, job simulation approaches can often be applied in isolation if this is likely to provide a critical indicator of suitability and performance. For example, in selecting a lecturer for a business school, as well as an interview it would be prudent to examine their lesson plans and either watch them teach or listen to a presentation built around a particular area of their subject-matter expertise. After all, they may be the most competent, knowledgeable and capable individual, but unless they are able to effectively share that knowledge with others then their suitability for the position is likely to be limited (Price, 2007)

This ‘work sampling’ approach can also be used to assess candidates without creating a formal assessment centre or psychometric evaluation. Some companies will offer internship opportunities to provide time for both the individual and the company to consider if they are likely to meet each other’s aspirations and expectations. In more technical or scientific fields, candidates could introduce a sample of their prior work as an evidence of competence and ability - a method used in the past when selecting from former trade apprentices (Leatherbarrow & Fletcher, 2015)

3.3 PRE-APPOINTMENT

When a candidate is called forward for selection (i.e. after screening) references should also be requested if appropriate - at the very least these should be reviewed prior to any offer of employment. Whilst such checks can often be subjective, they often help to either confirm the planned selection decision or provide a basis for review.

Role-specific requirements should also be carried out and these can include criminal records checks (including the Disclosure and Barring Service), medical examinations and confirming the candidate’s right to work in the UK (Muller-Camen et al, 2008). The legal aspects surrounding such pre-appointment concerns are outlined in the next chapter.

When an offer is made and accepted, then unsuccessful candidates should be informed at the same time. Internal candidates must be given full feedback on their performance with any developmental issues identified included within their performance and development agreement (Leatherbarrow & Fletcher, 2015).

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3.4 INDUCTION

Induction is often not effectively addressed and should be considered as an integral and final step in the selection and appointment process. Induction processes (both in role specific and those focussed on broader business concerns) must be critically reviewed regularly. Poor induction can lead to newly appointed staff members choosing to leave (see 5.0 below), which can make all the previous recruitment and selection processes adopted pointless, thus increasing the costs associated with recruitment whilst also undermining corporate reputation (CIPD, 2007). Ultimately, a sound induction processes can help to inform and improve the selection systems used, as issues or concerns (such as the appointment of unsuitable candidates) can be quickly identified (Bratton & Gold, 2007).

4.0 DIVERSITY IN RECRUITMENT

Diversity in recruitment and selection is essentially about managing people in a way that both recognizes and values differences between people. Ultimately, it is also about being able to value that difference as being a source of productive potential within an organisation (e.g. by providing a more comprehensive understanding of consumer/customer requirements) (Bratton & Gold, 2007).

As a consequence, it is essential to aim to employ the people best suited to the role(s) advertised without regard to their sex, marital status, racial origins, sexual preferences, religion, disability or age. Any factor of this nature which cannot reasonably be seen as being related to the role concerned should not form part of any recruitment and selection process and the legal issues surrounding this area (particularly the Equality Act 2010) are discussed in the next chapter (Leatherbarrow & Fletcher, 2015).

The basic rationale is to provide a ‘level playing field’ allowing everyone to compete for a position on equal terms (Torrington et al, 2014). To deliver such equal terms, many organisations take positive action (rather than positive discrimination which raises legal issues) to help potentially disadvantaged sectors access the same opportunities. For example, this can include consciously publishing job vacancies in publications or on web-sites that are focussed on under-represented ethnic or disabled groups (Torrington et al, 2014). Such approaches are often supported by associated targets (such as those set for UK public sector organisations such as the police and the military) aimed at securing a membership that is more representative of the community the organisation seeks to engage with.

The aim is to attract candidates from these communities, but this diversity approach should not extend to selection criteria. However, organisations are encouraged to consider adopting policies and practices that support such disadvantaged groups (such as more flexible employment approaches and more carefully tailored training interventions (Redman & Wilkinson, 2009).

It should be noted that there is a simple assumption in such approaches - namely, that equality and diversity in the workplace will be achieved if fair and open procedures are used and effectively monitored (Torrington et al, 2014). However, this does not consider the challenges associated with organisational culture(s) and the informal power structures that result. Procedures do not change individual and team attitudes and behaviours! If poorly managed, positive action becomes positive discrimination which can cause major problems within the established workforce who may feel particularly disadvantaged by such approaches, therefore further reinforcing entrenched attitudes to minority groups (e.g. extending flexible working to women engineers in anticipation of family commitments without allowing the same flexibility for a predominantly male workforce) (Fletcher & Leatherbarrow, 2015).

It is therefore considered simplistic and dangerous to use recruitment and selection approaches to treat the symptoms of discrimination. Organisations must ensure that such policies are linked to clear business objectives and organisational values in order to address the root causes of any discrimination that may exist (Torrington et al, 2014).

Discussion Point:

Consider an organisation that you are involved with or know well. What discrimination problems exist and are recruitment and selection approaches used to help resolve them? Do they work?

5.0 SUMMARY

This chapter has provided an outline of the range of complex issues that need to be considered in relation to recruitment and selection. Whilst understandably descriptive and process heavy, it has sought to draw a clear distinction between the two activities. The intent has been to demonstrate how solid preparation increases the chances of selecting the ‘right candidate’ for the role concerned. The factors presented should be reviewed alongside the recruitment and selection practices of major business entities in order to consider how the corporate approaches adopted seek to increase their chances of getting that elusive ‘right candidate’.

A company’s approach recruitment must also address the legislative frameworks that exist and it is therefore important to understand the issues presented in the next chapter. These elements must also be considered in conjunction with the understandable concerns relating to discrimination and diversity along with the need to ensure that equality of opportunity exists.

There is also a more fundamental aspect to address - an individual’s personal experience of recruitment and selection processes (irrespective of whether or not they are successful) shapes their perceptions of the company concerned. The challenge is to therefore ensure that in selecting the ‘right candidate’, a business leaves all the other applicants with the ‘right impression’!

Do you believe that a good recruitment model can select the right candidate on an impartial basis, or is it impossible to remove ‘luck’ or guesswork (or even just the ‘gut feel’) from the decision-making process?

Is it possible to remove unconscious discrimination from the screening process? If so, how?

What should be done when the recruitment and selection process has clearly failed and the wrong person has been appointed?

5.1 RECOMMENDED TEXTS

Armstrong, M., Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 13th Edition, London: Kogan Page Ltd.

Beardwell, J., Thompson, A. (2014). Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach, 7th Edition, Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

Leatherbarrow, C., Fletcher, J. (2015). Introduction to Human Resource Management: A Guide to HR in practice, 3rd Edition, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.


6.0 REFERENCES

Anyim, F.C., Ekwoaba, J.O., Anthony, I.D. (2012). The Role of Human Resource Planning in Recruitment and Selection Process, British Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(2), pp. 68-78.

Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th Edition, London: Kogan Page.

Armstrong, M., Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 13th Edition, London: Kogan Page Ltd.

Beardwell, J., Thompson, A. (2014). Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach, 7th Edition, Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

Bratton, J., Gold, J. (2007). Human Resource Management, 4th Edition, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

CIPD. (2007). Recruitment, Retention and Turnover, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Currie, D. (2006). Introduction to Human Resource Management: a guide to personnel in practice, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Dawson, M. (2005). Costa’s ‘filter’ gets the right employees. Human Resource Management International Digest, 13(4), pp. 21-22.

Foot, M., Hook, C. (2008). Introducing Human Resource Management, 5th Edition, Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

Kapferer, J.N. (2012). The New Strategic Brand Management: Advanced Insights & Strategic Thinking, 5th Edition, London: Kogan Page.

Leatherbarrow, C., Fletcher, J. (2015). Introduction to Human Resource Management: A Guide to HR in practice, 3rd Edition, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Millmore, M., Lewis, P., Saunders, M., Thornhill, A., Morrow, T. (2007). Strategic Human Resource Management: Contemporary Issues, Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

Muller-Camen, M., Croucher, R., Leigh, S. (2008). Human Resource Management: A case study approach, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Murphy, N. (2008). How Employer Branding Can Improve Recruitment. IRS Employment Review, Number 903 (August 2008).

Oxford Economics. (2014). The Cost of Brain Drain: Understanding the financial impact of staff turnover. [Online], Available:

http://www.oxfordeconomics.com/my-oxford/projects/264283  [30 November, 2016].

Price, A. (2007). Human Resource Management in a Business Context, 3rd Edition, London: Cengage Learning EMEA.

Redman, T., Wilkinson, A. (2009). Contemporary Human Resource Management: Text and Cases, 3rd Edition, Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

Searle, R. (2004). New technology: The potential impact of surveillance techniques in recruitment practices, Personnel Review, 35(3), pp. 336-351.

Taylor, S. (2014). Resourcing and Talent Management, 6th Edition, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S., Atkinson, C. (2014). Human Resource Management, 9th Edition, Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.


7.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY

CIPD. (2016a). Professional Map for HR Professionals. [Online], Available:

https://www.cipd.co.uk/learn/career/profession-map/core-areas 

[09 November, 2016].

CIPD. (2016b). Behaviours: The behaviours describe in detail how a HR professional needs to carry out their activities. [Online], Available:

https://www.cipd.co.uk/learn/career/profession-map/behaviours 

[09 November, 2016].

CIPD. (2016c). Professional areas: The professional areas describe what you need to do (activities) and what you need to know (knowledge) for each area of the HR profession at four bands of professional competence. [Online], Available:

https://www.cipd.co.uk/learn/career/profession-map/professional-areas 

[09 November, 2016].

Henry, A.E. (2011). Understanding Strategic Management, 2nd Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Johnson, G., Whittington, R., & Scholes, K. (2011). Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

Mullins, L.J., Christie, G. (2013). Management & Organisational Behaviour, 10th Edition, Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

Rigg, C., Stewart, J., Trehan, K. (2007). Critical Human Resource Development: Beyond Orthodoxy, Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.


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