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A Review of the Professional and Academic Literature
The purpose of this qualitative, single case study was to explore strategies that some manufacturing leaders in the automotive industries in Alabama use to reduce voluntary turnover of employees. Herzberg et al. (1959) two-factor theory was evident throughout the literature. I searched for peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2015 and 2019, as well as dissertations and books on the topic of voluntary turnover. The methodology and design component of the study included open-ended questions design that involved qualitative case study research material. The following databases were used: ProQuest Central, Business Source Complete, Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, and ABI-INFORM Complete. The following keywords were used: Employee retention, Turnover intention Herzberg’s two-factor theory, leadership, employee intentions, turnover, job satisfaction, and voluntary turnover.
The literature review revealed the following themes: the two-factor theory of Herzberg et al. (1959), internal motivation factors, and external hygiene factors, as well as additional literature on employee turnover, including the influence of turnover and the causes of turnover. The review of the literature revealed themes related to the influence of employee turnover, the causes of employee turnover, and the leadership traits that associated with reduced employee turnover. There was limited literature on job satisfaction and employee turnover in the United States manufacturing sector.
The purpose of this qualitative single case study was to explore strategies that some managers of the automotive industry used to reduce voluntary turnover of employees. Researchers have viewed employee turnover from a variety of foci, including employee engagement, job stress, and organizational culture (Herzberg et al., 1959). Many researchers have also viewed employee turnover through the motivation-hygiene theory of internal motivation factors and external hygiene factors (Herzberg et al., 1959)
The next section includes an explanation of the two-factor theory of Herzberg et al. (1959), followed by criticisms of the theory after its development. The literature review includes discussion of motivation (intrinsic) and hygiene (extrinsic) factors, as these relate to job satisfaction and ultimately employee turnover. Following synthesis of the two-factor theory, I review themes that emerged from the literature, including causes of employee turnover, repercussions from employee turnover, and leadership styles that influence employee turnover.
The Herzberg Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg et al. (1959) two-factor theory provided a context for the beliefs and views of employees. Herzberg et al. theorized two types of factors that influence job satisfaction: hygiene and motivation. Relationships with co-workers and superiors, working conditions, pay, and relationships with peers. Motivation factors include achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth in the company (Herzberg et al., 1959). Researchers used the two-factor theory to show that satisfaction and dissatisfaction with one’s job can affect job attitudes ().
Herzberg’s intrinsic motivation factors.Herzberg et al. (1959) identified six intrinsic factors of motivation that were used to explain employee motivation, as listed in Table 2. The internal motivation factors have more influence compared to external motivator factors on overall job satisfaction in some studies. Researchers have used these six factors to explain intrinsic motivation across varying populations in the literature.
Section 2: The Project
The purpose of this qualitative single case study was to explore the strategies that some managers in the automotive industry use to reduce voluntary employee turnover. This section of the study includes the purpose of the study, the role of the researcher, participants, the research method and design, population and sampling, ethical research, data collection and analysis, data organization, the reliability and validity of the study findings, and information about confidentiality and rigor.
The purpose of this was to explore the strategies that some managers in the automotive industry use to reduce voluntary employee turnover. The target population included manufacturing managers in Alabama who have a history of success in retaining employees. The implications for positive social change included creating awareness of the common components that affected employee turnover, improving managers understandings of strategies to reduce turnover, and stabilizing the local workforce and improving economic development, which benefited the community due to lower turnover rates.
Role of the Researcher
In a qualitative case study, the researcher serves as the primary data collection instrument (Karagiozis & uottawa. (2018). Conducting effective research requires the researcher to take on specific roles and responsibilities (Iversen & Jónsdóttir, 2018). My responsibility as the researcher was to act ethically and to collect data in an unbiased fashion. I purposely selected organizations and candidates that fit the sample criteria.
- Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. B., & Syndermann, B. B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
- Iversen, E., & Jónsdóttir, G. (2018). A bit more than a fly on the wall: roles and responsibilities in design-based research. Designs for Learning, 10(1), 18–28. doi:10.16993/dfl.79
- Karagiozis, N. [email protected] uottawa. c. (2018). The complexities of the researcher’s role in qualitative research: The power of reflexivity. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Educational Studies, 13(1), 19–31. doi:10.18848/2327-011X/CGP/v13i01/19-31
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